Curcuma domestica Valeton Curcuma longa llnn.
Cultivated all over India, particularly inWestBengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.
Classical &common names
Ayurvedic: Haridraa (Charaka, Sushruta); Priyaka, Haridruma (Charaka); Kshanda, Pitaa, Gauri, Kaanchani, Krimighna, Varavarnini, Yoshitapriyaa, Hattavilaasini, Naktaahvaa, Sharvari.
Haridraa and Daaruharidraa (Berberis aristata) are known as Haridraa-dwaya in Ayurvedic texts.
Synonyms for Curcuma caesia Roxb
Rajani, Nishaa, Nishi, Raatri.
Unani: Zard Chob.
Parts used - Rhizomes.
Dose Powder 1-3 g.
Classical use Charaka used the drug in liver disorders, urinary disorders, dermatosis, toxicosis, piles, bronchial asthma, senility, impaired vision.
Sushruta prescribed the drug in oedema, anaemia, skin diseases, leprosy, malignant ulcers, haemoptysis, seminal and urinary disorders, urethral and vaginal discharges; also in indigestion andchronic dysentery.
Haridra is also given for purifying and promoting breast milk.
Sushruta included Haridraa in a medicinal oil for cleansing and sterilizing ulcers and in an ointment for ringworm.
Haridra is a good blood purifier and used to treat allergy related conditions.
Externally the paste is applied to indolent ulcers, skin eruptions and inflamed joints.
Haridra is a good internal antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic agent in bronchial asthma. Over-the-counter, Haridraakhand, an Ayurvedic compound formulation of Bhaishajya Ratnaavali, is available for urticaria and skin diseases.
Now a days Haridraa is widely used in many cosmetic formulations.
Active principles and pharmacology
Major constituents are: Curcuminoids (approx. 6 %), the yellow colouring principles, of which curcumin constitutes 50-60 %, essential oil (27 %) with high content of bisabolane derivatives.
Other constituents are: desmethoxycurcumin, bidemethoxycurcumin, dihydrocurcumin, common phytosterols, fatty acids and polysaccharides, A,B,C& D. This help to improve digestion and pacifies intestinal spasm.
Another compound from turmeric (p-tolyl-methylcarbinol) has been shown to increase the secretion of secretin, gastrin, bicarbonate and pancreatic enzymes.
Several constituents of turmeric stimulate the flow of bile. The flavonoids in turmeric cause the contraction of the gallbladder, thereby increasing the effective emptying of the gallbladder.
Haridra is anti-inflammatory and antibacterial so that it is very effective in both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions of gallbladder and its ducts.
The curcumin is a very good choleretic and can be used as a preventive medicine for cholelithiasis.
As it has got hepatoprotective properties, can be used in many liver disorders.
It corrects the cholesterol level and a good antioxidant.
Haridra is very effective in vascular Thrombosis as it inhibit the platelet aggregation
Use inWestern herbal Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654) wrote of it: "Turrnerick opens obstructions, is profitable against yellow jaundice and cold distemper of the liver and spleen, half a dram being taken at night going to bed in the pulp of a roasted apple, and ifyou add a little saffron to it, it will be better by far:' (Charaka also used the drug for jaundice.)
Traditional Chinese physicians used turmeric to treatliverand gallbladder problems.} In the West,a mixture of bromelain (a protein dissolving enzyme from the pineapple) and curcumin is prescribed for angina. Bromelain helps reduce the formation of clots in damaged arteries, and curcumin helps to reduce the tendency for blood to clot and also reduces inflammation. (Dose: Bromelain 125-450mg, Curcumin 400 - 600 mg a day.)
For Carpel Tunnel Syndrome 250-500 mg of curcumin a day is prescribed.
For rheumatoid arthritis 400-600 mg a day is recommended; in sciatica 250-500mg three times a day. For phlebitis, curcumin (400-600 mg a day) is prescribed with bromelain and anticoagulants.
Once the clot is dissolved, the patient is asked to continue bromelain and curcumin up to three months. German Commission E monograph recognized Curcuma domestica's efficacy in: t Loss of appetite, Liver and gall bladder complaints.