AMALAKI PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA (Indian gooseberry)
Phyllanthus emblica Linn.
Syn. Emblica officinalis Gaertn.
Amalaki, Vayasya, Vrishya, Dhatriphala, Amritaphala, Amalaka, Tishyaphala.
Eng.- Emblic myrobalan, Indian gooseberry. Hindi- Amlaki, Amalak, Amvala, Aonla, Amla. Beng.- Amla, Amlaki, Ambolati, Amulati. Guj.- Bhosa, Amla, Ambala. Kan.- Nellka, Nelli, Nilika. Mal.- Nellimaram, Nellikka, Boa-malacca. Mar.- Avala. Punj.- Ambal, Ambli, Amla. Tam.- Nelli, Nelli-kai, Toppi. Tel.- Usirikaya, Amalakamu, Usereki, Wusheriko, Osirka, Usri, Usirika. Arab- Amlaj. Assam- Amluki, Sohmyrlain. N.W.P.- Amla, Aoula. Oriya- Gondhona, Amlaki, Ohalu. Pers.- Amuleh, Amelah. Santhal- Meral.
A small or medium sized, deciduous tree. Leaves subsessile, closely set along the branchlets, distichous, narrowly linear, obtuse, having appearance of pinnate leaves. Flowers greenish-yellow, in axillary fascicles on the leaf bearing branchlets, often on the naked portion below the leaves. Fruits fleshy, globose, with obscure vertical furrow, pale yellow. Seeds 6, trigonous.
Throughout tropical and subtropical India, chiefly in dry deciduous forests, ascending to 1400 m on the Himalaya, Chota Nagpur, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, North Circars, Deccan, Karnataka and in Western ghats.
Root bark, stem bark, leaf, fruit, seed
ACTIONS AND USES
The root bark is astringent and is useful in ulcerative stomatitis and gastric ulcer. The bark is astringent and useful in gonorrhoea, jaundice, diarrhoea and myalgia. The flowers are cooling and aperient. The leaves are useful in conjunctivitis, inflammation, dyspepsia, diarrhoea and dysentery. The fruits are astringent, cooling, anodyne, carminative, digestive, stomachic, laxative, alterant, alexeteric, aphrodisiac, diuretic, antipyretic, tonic and trichogenous. They are useful in diabetes, cough, asthma, bronchitis, headache, ophthalmic disorders, dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, hyperacidity, peptic ulcer, erysipelas, skin diseases, leprosy, haematemesis, inflammations, anaemia, emaciation, hepatic disorders, jaundice, strangury, diarrhoea, dysentery, intrinsic haemorrhages, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, cardiac disorders, intermittent fevers and greyness of hair. Seeds are reproted to be useful in asthma, bronchitis and biliousness.
A good source of vitamin C; carotene, nicotinic acid, riboflavine, D-glucose, D-fructose, myoinositol and a pectin with D-galacturonic acid, D-arabinosyl, D-xylosyl, L-rhamnosyl, D-glucosyl, D-mannosyl and D-galactosyl residues, embicol, mucic, Indole acetic acid and four other auxins- a1, a3, a4 and a5, two growth inhibitors- R1 & R2; phyllembic acid and phyllembin (fruits) and fatty acids (seed oil); leucodelphinidin, procyanidin, 3-0-gallated prodelphinidin and tannin (bark); ellagic acid, lupeol, oleanolic aldehyde and 0-acetyl oleanolic acid (root); tannins, polyphenolic compounds; 1,2,3,6-trigalloylglucose, terchebin, corialgin, ellagic acid, alkaloids, phyllantidine and phyllantine (leaves & fruits).
Spasmolytic, mild CNS depressant, hypolipidaemic, antiatherosclerotic, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antifungal, antitumour, hypoglycaemic, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antiulcer, adrenergic potentiating, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory action.
Rasa - Amla, Madhura, Kashaya, Tikta, Katu
Guna - Guru, Ruksha, Sheeta
Veerya - Sheeta
Vipaka - Madhura
Doshaghnata - Tridoshashamaka, especially Pittashamaka
Rogaghnata - Paittikavikara, Daha, Paittikashirahshoola, Mootravarodha, Netraroga, Khalitya, Palitya, Mastishkadaurbalya, Drishtimandya, Indriyadaurbalya, Aruchi, Trishna, Agnimandya, Vibandha, Yakridvikara, Amlapitta, Parinamashoola, Udavarta, Udararoga, Arsha, Hridroga, Raktapitta, Raktavikara, Kasa, Shwasa, Yakshma, Shukrameha, Pradara, Garbhashayadaurbalya, Mootrakrichchhra, Paittikaprameha, Kushtha, Visarpa, Charmaroga, Jeernajwara, Kshaya, Daurbalya, Daha, Shotha
Karma - Dahaprashamana, Chakshushya, Keshya, Medhya, Nadibalya, Balya, Rochana, Deepana, Anulomana, Amlatanashaka, Yakriduttejaka, Stambhana, Sransana, Hridya, Shonitasthapana, Kaphaghna, Vrishya, Garbhasthapana, Mootrala, Pramehaghna, Kushthaghna, Jwaraghna, Rasayana
Doses - Fruit powder- 3-6 gm.; Fresh juice- 10-20 ml.